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EMERGENCY LIGHTING


ELECTRONIC GEAR LED LIGHTING EMERGENCY LIGHTING ALTENBURGER

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EMERGENCY LIGHTING

 

 

AN INTRODUCTION TO EMERGENCY LIGHTING, IT’S COMPONENTS AND THE MAINTENANCE THEREOF

                   

                   

                   

                   

The aim of this text is to bring to the reader, a basic and better understanding of the terminology, operation, and basic principles behind Emergency Lighting.

                   

                   

                   

ÉCLAT LIGHTING CC

P.O. BOX 1694

ALBERTON

1450

SOUTH AFRICA

TEL: +27 11 868 2578

TEL: +27 11 868 3779

FAX: +27 11 868 2578

 

Comments, ideas and suggestions are always welcome; should you have any, please contact the writer.

                   

                   

                   

 

 

DEFINITIONS

TERMINOLOGY

EXPLANATION

EMERGENCY LIGHTING LIGHTING FOR USE WHEN THE SUPPLY TO THE NORMAL LIGHTING FAILS, IT INCLUDES EMERGENCY ESCAPE LIGHTING, HIGH-RISK, TASK-AREA LIGHTING AND STANDBY LIGHTING.
EMERGENCY ESCAPE LIGHTING THAT PART OF EMERGENCY LIGHTING THAT PROVIDES ILLUMINATION FOR THE SAFETY OF PEOPLE LEAVING AN AREA OR ATTEMPTING TO TERMINATE A DANGEROUS PROCESS BEFORE VACATING AN AREA.
STANDBY LIGHTING THAT PART OF EMERGENCY LIGHTING THAT ENABLES NORMAL ACTIVITIES TO CONTINUE SUBSTANTIALLY UNCHANGED

HIGH-RISK TASK-AREA LIGHTING

THAT PART OF EMERGENCY LIGHTING PROVIDED TO ENSURE THE SAFETY OF PEOPLE INVOLVED IN A POTENTIALLY DANGEROUS PROCESS OR SITUATION, AND TO ENABLE PROPER SHUT-DOWN PROCEDURES FOR THE SAFETY OF THE OPERATOR AND OCCUPANTS OF THE PREMISES.

MAINTAINED EMERGENCY LUMINAIRE

LUMINAIRE IN WHICH THE EMERGENCY LIGHTING LAMPS ARE ENERGIZED AT ALL TIMES WHEN NORMAL OR EMERGENCY LIGHTING IS REQUIRED.

NON-MAINTAINED EMERGENCY LUMINAIRE LUMINAIRE IN WHICH THE EMERGENCY LIGHTING LAMPS ARE IN OPERATION ONLY WHEN THE SUPPLY TO THE NORMAL LIGHTING FAILS.
COMBINED EMERGENCY LUMINAIRE LUMINAIRE CONTAINING TWO OR MORE LAMPS, AT LEAST ONE OF WHICH IS ENERGIZED FROM THE EMERGENCY LIGHTING SUPPLY AND THE OTHERS FROM THE NORMAL LIGHTING SUPPLY - A COMBINED EMERGENCY LUMINAIRE IS EITHER MAINTAINED OR NON-MAINTAINED.

SELF-CONTAINED EMERGENCY LUMINAIRE

LUMINAIRE PROVIDING MAINTAINED OR NON-MAINTAINED EMERGENCY LIGHTING IN WHICH ALL THE ELEMENTS, SUCH AS THE BATTERY, THE LAMP, THE CONTROL UNIT AND THE TEST AND MONITORING FACILITIES (WHERE PROVIDED) ARE CONTAINED WITHIN THE LUMINAIRE OR ADJACENT TO IT I.E. WITHIN 1M CABLE LENGTH.
CENTRALLY SUPPLIED EMERGENCY LUMINAIRE LUMINAIRE FOR MAINTAINED OR NON-MAINTAINED OPERATION, WHICH IS, ENERGIZED FROM A CENTRAL EMERGENCY POWER SYSTEM THAT IS NOT CONTAINED WITHIN THE LUMINAIRE.
COMPOUND SELF-CONTAINED EMERGENCY LUMINAIRE SELF CONTAINED LUMINAIRE PROVIDING MAINTAINED OR NON-MAINTAINED EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND ALSO PROVIDING EMERGENCY SUPPLY FOR OPERATING A SATELLITE LUMINAIRE.

SATELLITE EMERGENCY LUMINAIRE

LUMINAIRE FOR MAINTAINED OR NON-MAINTAINED OPERATION WHICH DERIVES EMERGENCY OPERATION SUPPLY FROM AN ASSOCIATED COMPOUND SELF-CONTAINED EMERGENCY LUMINAIRE.
CONTROL UNIT UNIT OR UNITS COMPRISING A SUPPLY CHANGEOVER SYSTEM, A BATTERY CHARGING DEVICE AND, WHERE APPROPRIATE, A MEANS FOR TESTING (NOTE: FOR TUBULAR FLUORESCENT LAMP LUMINAIRES, THIS UNIT MAY ALSO CONTAIN THE LAMP CONTROL GEAR.)
NORMAL SUPPLY FAILURE ILLUMINANCE FOR EMERGENCY ESCAPE PURPOSES AND WHEN THE EMERGENCY LIGHTING SHOULD BECOME OPERATIVE.
EMERGENCY LUMINAIRE RATED LUMEN OUTPUT LUMEN OUTPUT AS CLAIMED BY THE LUMINAIRE MANUFACTURER, 60S (0.25S FOR HIGH-RISK TASK-AREA LIGHTING LUMINAIRES) AFTER FAILURE OF THE NORMAL SUPPLY, AND CONTINUOUSLY TO THE END OF RATED DURATION OF OPERATION.
RATED DURATION OF EMERGENCY OPERATION THE TIME, AS CLAIMED BY THE MANUFACTURER, THAT THE RATED EMERGENCY LUMEN OUTPUT IS PROVIDED.
NORMAL MODE STATE OF A SELF-CONTAINED EMERGENCY LUMINAIRE THAT IS READY TO OPERATE IN EMERGENCY MODE WHILE THE NORMAL SUPPLY IS ON - IN THE CASE OF A NORMAL SUPPLY FAILURE, THE SELF-CONTAINED LUMINAIRE AUTOMATICALLY CHANGES OVER TO THE EMERGENCY MODE.
EMERGENCY MODE ENERGIZED BY ITS INTERNAL POWER SOURCE, THE NORMAL SUPPLY HAVING FAILED.
REST MODE EXTINGUISHED WHILE THE NORMAL SUPPLY IS OFF AND THAT, IN THE EVENT OF RESTORATION OF THE NORMAL SUPPLY, AUTOMATICALLY REVERTS TO NORMAL MODE.
MAXIMUM OVERCHARGE RATE MAXIMUM CONTINUOUS CHARGE RATE THAT MAY BE APPLIED TO A FULLY CHARGED BATTERY.
REMOTE INHIBITING FACILITY MEANS FOR INHIBITING REMOTELY A LUMINAIRE ASSOCIATED WITH AN EMERGENCY LIGHTING SYSTEM.
REMOTE INHIBITING MODE STATE OF A SELF CONTAINED EMERGENCY LUMINAIRE, WHICH IS INHIBITED FROM OPERATING BY A REMOTE DEVICE WHILE THE NORMAL SUPPLY IS ON AND IN CASE OF A NORMAL SUPPLY FAILURE, THE LUMINAIRE DOES NOT CHANGE OVER TO EMERGENCY MODE.
   
 

 

Ni-Cad Cells Standard And High Temperature

Standard Cells have an Operating Temperature of 50 °C. HIGH TEMPERATURE CELLS from SAFT, have an Operating Temperature of 70°C, and are currently one of the best available. Cells from VARTA in Germany conform to the European specification of 50°C. A random selection of Battery Packs usually undergo a series of Tests on a regular basis to ensure that they conform to quality standards. Beware of sub-standard product.

Effects Of High Ambient Temperatures

The effect of high temperatures on Cells is to compromise the performance of the Cell as the temperature increases. It is, therefore, important to keep the Cells away from heat sources such as Lamps and ballast’s. It is also important to try and determine what the running temperature will be inside a specific Luminaire when choosing Luminaires for particular installations. Incorrect application will result in early failure of the entire Emergency Luminaire.

Memory Effect

Ni-Cad Cells tend to suffer from what is termed "memory effect". This occurs when Cells are always discharged to the same level of Voltage, and never below this level. Eventually, when the Cell is required to go below this level of Voltage, it cannot. This is due to a layer of crystallization occurring in the electrolyte of the Cell. This then renders the Cell useless. This crystallization can sometimes be broken or removed by briefly reverse charging the Cell for a very brief period, with a somewhat higher than normal Voltage. Note: This is not always successful.

Regular Maintenance Of Batteries

It is recommended with Ni-Cad Battery Packs, that they be given a Functional Test at one monthly intervals. This Test has a Duration of 1 - 2 minutes. The Duration Test, which is a full discharge of the Battery Pack, should be carried out at six monthly intervals. Note: This Test should be carried out more regularly if there are many Power Failures of short Duration, in a short space of Time. This is considered good practice for all types of Ni-Cad Cells, used in any application.

Voltage Of Ni-Cad Cells

Over Time, as the Cells become older, their performance decreases. A new Cell may have a terminal Battery Voltage of l.6 Volts in its fully charged state; an older Cell may only have a Voltage of 1.2 Volts in its fully charged state. At the end of Battery life (which can be as high as 10 years, with the correct regular maintenance) 100% of the stated Light Output will still be achieved by the Luminaire.

Note: Where calculations requiring Cell Voltages are done, 1.0 Volt per Cell is used and not 1.6 Volts.

Ampere Hour Rating Of Cells

Ni-Cad Cells are usually available in the following Ampere Hour ratings:-

1.2

1.8

2.0

2.5

2.8

4.0

4.4

7.0

and 10.0

The most popular Cell sizes are :-

1.2

1.8

2.0

2.8

and 4.0

Configurations Of Battery Packs

All of the above Cells are available in stick or side-by-side formation, starting at two Cells and usually ending at 6 Cells. Special configurations are also available. The most popular Packs are 4 Cell and 5 Cell in both stick and side-by-side formations.

Charging Of Ni-Cad Cells

Charging of the Ni-Cad Cells or Battery Pack is usually carried out by the Inverter, which in the case of most Inverters, has a built-in Battery charger. This charger is designed around the number and size of Cells to be charged. The rate of charge is usually 100 milli-Amperes (mA), per Ampere-Hour (Ah). The reason for the low rate of charge is due to the fact that Ni-Cads tend to lose their capacity and efficiency as their temperature increases. (Charging causes an increase in Cell temperature.) This is also one of the reasons for keeping Cells away from heat sources. Inverters that do not have built-in Battery chargers will be those which will run off an external Battery, (e.g. central Battery System) or an external power source (solar power, central generator). Achieving a full charge on a flat Battery Pack usually takes up to 24 Hours, but can be as low as 12 Hours. It may sometimes be necessary to cycle the Battery Pack to achieve the required Time Duration and Light Output. To cycle a Battery Pack means to charge and discharge the Pack at least twice. This all depends on the initial state of the Battery.

Polarity Reversal Of Ni-Cad Cells

This can occur when a cheap Inverter is used, and does not shut down when the Ni-Cad Cell Voltage reaches an absolute minimum of 0.8 to 1.0 Volts. If the Cells are allowed to drop below this point, they can and do reverse polarity. This then renders the Pack useless, as the Cell(s) that reversed their polarity will discharge or destroy the other Cells in the following charge-up periods. This also lowers the Voltage of the Battery Pack, thus not allowing the Inverter to run to its full Output and Time Duration.

Determining The Light Output Of An Emergency Luminaire

How do we determine Light Output, given a specific Time Duration, size and quantity of Battery Cells? Let us use the following figures as an example. The Inverter used here would be a 36 watt 12 Cell / 4 Ah 1hr Duration:

Number of Cells in fitting : 12

Ampere-Hour rating of Cells : 4

Efficiency of the Inverter : 0.75

Wattage of the tube in use : 36

Time Duration (Hours) : 1

Light Output : ?

The following formula can be applied:

LO = NC x AH x N                                                                    

  • W x T    

  •                                                                 Where:    
                          • AH = Ampere Hour Rating Of Cells
                          • *N = Efficiency Of Inverter
                          •  W = Wattage Of Lamp
                          •  T = Time Duration
                          • NC = Number Of Cells
                          • LO = Required Light Output

*Important note: All Inverters have an efficiency of 75% except for 58/65 watt, which is 95% at 100% Light Output.

Example:

LO = 12 x 4 x 0.75

        36 x 1

 

     = 36

        36

     = 1 x 100 (to get to percentage)

     = 100% Light Output

 

OVA

OVA ACTIVA And DARDO Luminaire Range

These are Complete Luminaires or Inverters which are available, and are Self-Testing Or Self-Diagnostic. See The OVA Emergency Lighting and Emergency Power Catalogues. Alternatively, visit the website at www.ova.it

The ACTIVA System

These Luminaires are stand-alone units and will carry out a Functional Check at pre-programmed intervals. They also carry out a Duration Test at pre-programmed intervals. These two intervals can be factory set at the pre-determined intervals requested by the customer. When a fault is detected within the Luminaire (Battery, Inverter and Lamp are Tested) the Multi-Colour LED will display or flash a specific colour. This colour determines what is faulty in that particular Luminaire.

The 2-Wire DARDO Central Point Monitoring System

The Luminaires, are monitored by a DARDOBOX Central Station; the same Tests as mentioned above are carried out. These Test intervals are presettable by the customer, which is programmed into the DARDOBOX via a standard Computer, equipped with the relevant Software. The DARDOBOX is then capable of giving a periodic printout of all faulty Luminaires as well as the type of fault present within each Luminaire. The printout is obtained either via the DARDOBOX’s Built in printer, or via a Standard Computer printer. Each Luminaire is allocated a specific Code or ID number, upon setup of the System. Repeater units, connected via an RS 485 or RS 232 Standard Serial Port, are used to boost the signals of communication between the Luminaires and the Various DARDOBOXES.

System Supervision, Status and Integrity

Without PC Supervision, each DARDOBOX unit can monitor 2 Lines with a maximum of 96 Luminaires per Line (In this case, the maximum number of DARDOBOXES = 4.) In the event that there is a Power Failure, the 2 Lines (odd numbered Luminaires, and then even numbered Luminaires) on each of the DARDOBOXES are Tested at different Time intervals, to avoid having all of the batteries depleted at any one Time, following a full Duration Test.

With PC Supervision, the maximum number of DARDOBOXES is 32, (and with the inclusion of a Repeater unit, a further 32 DARDOBOXES can be monitored.) Each DARDOBOX once again has 2 Lines with a maximum of 96 Luminaires per Line. The DARDOBOX Units can also be linked back to Existing Building Management Systems, or to a modem for remote monitoring. This then allows for a maximum of 12,288 Emergency Luminaires to be monitored from one central point.

This System is ideal for use in existing buildings where upgrading of the Emergency Lighting Systems is required. Obviously, it can also be used on new installations. The cabling between Luminaires and the Controlling DARDOBOX is a 2-wire System, paralleled to each Luminaire. The System then uses this cabling or wiring as a communication link between the central Test station and the Luminaires.

The Status of each DARDOBOX is displayed on the front of each unit, as well as the status of any Test, which is currently in progress.

Any Test (Functional or Duration Tests) can be cancelled at any Time. Any Test, which currently is in progress, is also aborted in the event of a Power Failure, insufficiently recharged batteries, or in the event that there is a short Circuit on the power Lines feeding the Emergency Luminaires. The fault will be noted on the printout.

Functional Tests are carried out at weekly intervals at the same Time. These Tests last for a little more than one minute, and Test both Lines of the particular DARDOBOX simultaneously. I.E. All Lamps at once. The Test would abort in the event of any of the faults as mentioned above, being present on both Lines. Also, if there are more than 8 faulty Luminaires present per Line, the Functional Test is aborted. The faults will be indicated on the printout. Manual Functional Tests can also be carried out, by simply pushing the relevant button on the DARDOBOX.

Normally the Duration Test is carried out every 84 days (Factory preset but can be altered to suit the requirements of the User.) In the event of a fault as mentioned above, being present on both Lines of a particular DARDOBOX, the Test would be cancelled or postponed. A further Duration Test would be carried out one week later at the same Time. If the same fault is still present, this will be noted on the new printout. If this fault is only on one Line of a particular DARDOBOX, the other Line will still be Tested as per normal, and the Test would not be postponed. The Test report would then only indicate the status of the Tested Line.

A Duration Test can also be interrupted by the System, for two reasons; Inhibition of the Duration Test by the User, or discharged DARDOBOX Batteries. In both cases the printout will indicate the reason for the interruption.

The System also allows for a Rest Mode, which can be made operational during holiday periods, or during periods when the buildings will be vacant. The Rest Mode Facility prohibits any Functional or Duration Tests from being carried out. Pressing the RESTORE button returns the System to Normal Mode.

Important note: Luminaires from other Manufacturers cannot be mixed or used on this System. These are dedicated Luminaires, and can only be used on the System they were designed for.

Lamps

Fluorescent Lamps form an essential part of the Emergency Luminaire. These lamps are usually in the form of a Linear or Compact version, with wattages ranging from 4 Watt to 125 Watt. The éCLAT Range of Inverters are capable of running any of the Lamps mentioned, with Light Outputs ranging from 20% to 100% of the Lamps Nominal Light Output.

2 Pin Lamps

Under no circumstances should a 2 pin Lamp be used for Emergency Lighting. It is contrary to regulation and an explanation is given under 4 pin Lamps as to why it should not be used and the results of their use. Think 4 pin!

4 Pin Lamps

All small compact fluorescent 2-pin Lamps have a starter in the base of the Lamp. This creates problems in Emergency Lighting, as the starter cannot effectively be bypassed when an Emergency Inverter is wired into the Luminaire Circuit. The problem encountered with this type of Lamp is that the starter jams because of the high Voltage produced by the Inverter, and also by the Starter. This jamming of the starter can cause the loss of the Emergency Lamp Output, as well as a dramatic reduction in Lamp and Inverter life. The high Voltage produced by the starter can also destroy the Inverter Output.

In using a 4-pin Lamp, the external starter is effectively bypassed by the Inverter and suitable wiring arrangements when running in Emergency mode. This eliminates the above mentioned fault and ensures that the Emergency Lighting will operate when required to do so. (The starter is not required to strike the Lamp under Mains Fail conditions; the Inverter carries out this operation.) Also, according to IEC, a Lamp with a built-in starter may not be used for Emergency Lighting applications (IEC598-2-22 part 22.6.1).

Popular Definitions In Simple Terms

Maintained Emergency Lighting

The term Maintained refers to those Luminaires, which will operate off Mains Voltage and off an internal Battery Pack. In other words it will operate under normal conditions as a normal Luminaire, as well as an Emergency Luminaire under Mains Fail conditions.

Non-Maintained Emergency Lighting

The term Non-Maintained refers to those Luminaires, which will operate only off an internal Battery Pack. In other words, it will not operate under normal conditions as a normal Luminaire, but only as an Emergency Luminaire under Mains Fail conditions. The visible differences between Maintained and Non-Maintained Luminaires are as follows:

Identifying Non-Maintained Luminaires

- Has no ballast or choke

- Has no capacitor

- Has no starter

- Has one Inverter

- Has one suitable Battery Pack

- Has one Cabtyre if required

- Usually one Lamp

The Emergency Non-Maintained Luminaires usually have only one Lamp, as the Inverters used usually only operate one Lamp. There are Instances where one Inverter and Battery Pack, in a Non-Maintained Luminaire, is used to operate two Lamps. Care must be taken so as not to overload the Inverter Output. The total maximum power is limited to 58 watt, and is usually limited to 50% Light Output.

Identifying Maintained Luminaires

- Contains all of the above items

- An extra terminal marked "SL"

- Has two Cabtyre’s if required.

- Usually more than one Lamp

The Emergency Maintained Luminaires usually have more than one Lamp, and commonly, the Inverters used, usually only operate one Emergency Lamp. There are however, ECLAT Inverters available, which are capable of operating two Emergency Lamps within a Maintained Emergency Luminaire. (See D2X or P2X Series of Inverters.) Care must however be taken, so as not to overload the Inverter Output. The total maximum power is limited to 58 watt, and is usually limited to 50% Light Output.

Functional Test

This Test is just to check the functionality of the Emergency Luminaire. A brief Test of one to two minutes is usually sufficient to determine the functionality of the Control Gear.

Duration Test

This Test is carried out to completely discharge the Battery Pack. This also ensures that the Inverter and Lamp are functional. The length of the Duration Test is determined by the Ampere-Hour rating of the Battery Pack and the Wattage of the Lamp installed in the Luminaires.

Determining Time Duration Of Emergency Luminaires

How do we determine Time Duration, given a specific Light Output Wattage of Lamp, size and quantity of Battery Cells? Let us use the following figures as an example (the Inverter used here would be a 36 watt 6 Cell / 4 ah):

Number of Cells in Luminaire : 6

Ampere-Hour rating of Cells : 4

Efficiency of the Inverter : 0.75

Wattage of the tube in use : 36

Time Duration (Hours) : ?

Light Output : 50%

*Important note: All Inverters have an efficiency of 75% except for 58/65 watt, which is 95% at 100% Light Output.

  • The following formula can be applied:

Example:

    T = 6 x 4 x 0.75

              36 x 50%

  •    = 18
  •       18
  •  
  •    = 1 Hour
    •  

       

Halving The Time Duration

Using the same Inverter in the example given in the section "Time Duration", we can halve the Time Duration by halving the Ampere Hour (Ah) rating of the Cells i.e. from 4 Ah to 2 Ah as shown in the following example:

Number of Cells in Luminaire : 6

Ampere-Hour rating of Cells : 2

Efficiency of the Inverter : 0.75

Wattage of the tube in use : 36

Time Duration (Hours) : ?

Light Output : 50%

*Important note: All Inverters have an efficiency of 75% except for 58/65 watt, which is 95% at 100% Light Output.

                              The following formula can be applied:

T = NC x AH x N Where: T = Required Time Duration

      W x LO L0 = Percentage Light Output NC = Number Of Cells

      AH = Ampere Hour Rating Of Cells

      *N = Efficiency Of Inverter

      W = Wattage Of Lamp

       

Example:

T = 6 x 2 x 0.75

    36 x 50%

    = 9

          18

= 0.5 Hour.

Additional Cells

It may sometimes be necessary, in instances as in "halving Time Duration", to add an extra Cell to achieve the required Light Output. This happens, as there is not enough energy present to drive the Inverter to full capacity. Most Inverters can cope adequately with one extra Cell as an additional load under charging conditions. Please remember that the Light Output is determined by the Wattage of the Lamp in use. Also the Time Duration is determined by Wattage of the Lamp in use.

With certain Inverters the Time Duration will stay constant, but Light Output will again be determined by Wattage of the Lamp in use.

Switched Line

This is a Power Supply to the Emergency Luminaire, to enable it to operate as per a standard Luminaire. This Supply comes direct from the switched side of the Light switch and allows the Emergency Luminaire to operate as a standard Luminaire.

Unswitched Line

This is a Power Supply to the Emergency Luminaire, to enable the Inverter to charge up the Ni-Cad Cells. This Line, is also used by the Inverter, to detect Power Failure and enable the changeover Circuit. This Supply comes direct from the Unswitched side of the Light switch, or direct from a Circuit breaker (of appropriate current rating) in the Distribution Cabinet, whichever option is more convenient.

Positioning Of Emergency Luminaires

According to Regulations, Emergency Luminaires must be positioned as given below and should also be used to emphasize potential danger or Safety Equipment:

1. At each exit door to be used in Emergency situations

2. Near stairways, so that each flight of stairs receives direct Light.

3. Near any other change in level.

4. Near any change in direction.

5. At any intersection of corridors.

6. At mandatory Emergency Exits and Safety Signs.

7. Outside and near to each final Exit.

8. Near each First-Aid Post.

9. Near each piece of Fire-Fighting Equipment and Call Points.

Note: Near is normally considered within 1M measured horizontally. Points 8 and 9 above, which are neither on the ESCAPE ROUTE, nor In an OPEN AREA must be illuminated to a minimum of 5 Lux on the Floor.

ÉCLAT Emergency Luminaires - An Explanation Of The Descriptions

Let us look at a couple of examples:

1. ECL4 258 CCG 230V M 50% 1HR
ECL4     Type of Luminaire
258       2 off 58 Watt Lamps
CCG      Switched Start (Under Normal Conditions)
230V     Voltage Of The Supply To The Luminaire
M          Maintained Emergency Luminaire
50%      Percentage Of Light Output Under Mains Fail Conditions From 1 Lamp
1HR Expected Time Duration Of Emergency Lamp Under Mains Fail Conditions
2. ECL1 TEL 136 ECG M 50% 1HR OSR
ECL1 Type of Luminaire
136 1 off 36 Watt Lamp
ECG Electronic Control Gear (Under Normal Conditions)
230V Voltage Of The Supply To The Luminaire
M Maintained
50% Percentage Of Light Output Under Mains Fail Conditions From 1 Lamp
1HR Expected Time Duration Of Emergency Lamp Under Mains Fail Conditions
OSR Osram Electronic Control Gear
3. OTHER DESCRIPTIONS YOU WILL COME ACROSS ARE AS FOLLOWS:
ECG Electronic Ballast
DIM ECG Electronic Dimmable Ballast
SR Semi-Resonant Ballast
RS Rapid Start Ballast
NM Non-Maintained Emergency Luminaire
209 2 Compact Fluorescent 9-Watt Lamps
DLXD DULUX D/E Compact Fluorescent 18-57-Watt Lamps
TLX Lamp for Explosion-Proof Luminaires
HALO Halogen Lamp
BBX Battery Box
EMG/PK Emergency Pack
CONV/PK Conversion Pack
OSR Osram
TRI Tridonic
CLAL Clalight
ECL ÉCLAT
SDS Self-Diagnostic System

Inverters What Is An Inverter?

An Inverter will transform a D.C. Voltage (such as that from a Battery), into an A.C. Voltage (such as that from a wall socket outlet). This transformation cannot simply be achieved by means of a step-up transformer, as the laws of electricity do not allow it.

Inverter - Basic Operation

The Battery charger built into the Inverter will charge a specified set of Ni-Cad Cells. This is done via the Unswitched Line to the Inverter. This Unswitched Line is also used to detect Power Failures. When a Power Failure is detected, the changeover circuitry will switch to the Battery Supply. At the same Time, the relay will cut out the external starter on the Lamp Circuit, as well as the ballast. This Battery Supply is then 'watched' by a section of the Inverter to ensure that the Battery Supply is cut off at the correct Voltage (to avoid polarity reversal of the Cells.)

Also being monitored is the current supplied to the Lamp. This must not exceed a pre-determined value (this does not apply to the starting-up of the Lamp.) Start-up is achieved by the Output transformer of the Inverter via what is commonly termed 'hot leads' (usually 2.) The Output transformer will raise the Output Voltage to the Lamp, to as high as 2 500 Volts at a high frequency, usually in the order of 30 to 45 kHz [kilohertz] (normal Mains frequency is 50 Hertz) until an arc is struck in the Lamp, after which the current to the Lamp will be limited.

An harmonic filter and EMI (Electro Magnetic Interference) filters are usually fitted to the input of the Inverter to prevent harmonics from being fed back onto the Mains wiring and EMI from generating noises onto radio and television signals.

When the Mains Supply is restored to the Luminaire, the changeover relay will switch back to the normal position and recharging of the Ni-Cad Cells will resume.

Combining ÉCLAT Emergency Inverters With Electronic (Also Dimmable) Control Gear

This can be successfully achieved using, among others, ÉCLAT, OSRAM and TRIDONIC or CLALIGHT Electronic Control Gear, provided that the Inverter and Electronic Gear in a particular Luminaire are fed from the same phase and neutral in a 380 Volt System.

Ten Of The Most Common Causes Of Failure Of Inverters

1. Unplugging or removing the Emergency Lamp whilst the Inverter is running in Emergency mode.

2. High Ambient Temperatures.

3. Overloading of the Inverter Output.

4. Lightning.

5. Incorrect connection of Battery Supply.

6. The use of 2 pin Lamps.

7. Exposure of Inverter's Mains Input to 380 Volt A.C. such as a loss of a neutral phase in a 380-Volt installation.

8. Too many / too few Cells connected.

9. Water or moisture ingress.

10. Incorrect connections of the Output of the Inverter.

Connecting Emergency Luminaires To The Mains

The following terminal markings are to be found in Emergency Luminaires:

SL = Switched Line (ÉCLAT Luminaires)

L = Unswitched Line (ÉCLAT Luminaires)

N = Neutral (ÉCLAT Luminaires)

E = Earth (ÉCLAT Luminaires)

P1 = Switched Line (OVA Luminaires)

P2 = Unswitched Line (OVA Luminaires)

N1 = Neutral (OVA Luminaires)

N2 = Neutral (OVA Luminaires)

A = Emergency inhibit (OVA Luminaires)

C = Emergency inhibit (OVA Luminaires)

SL, PI and N1 terminals will only be found in Maintained Type Luminaires. To use a Maintained Luminaire in Non-Maintained mode, only connect the L, P2 and N2 terminals. (Unfortunately, a Non-Maintained Luminaire cannot be used in the Maintained Mode.)

If a Maintained type Luminaire is never going to be switched off, a single live Supply and a simple bridge of insulated wire installed between the following terminals will suffice:

SL and L = (ÉCLAT Luminaires)

PI and P2 = (OVA Luminaires)

N1 and N2 = (OVA Luminaires)

Regulations

The I.E.C. 598-22-2 Regulations regarding Emergency Luminaires and Emergency Lighting will, in due course, become an International Standard on which we will base our Luminaires and Local Standards. (We are already working towards this goal, by having based the SABS 1464-22 on this Document.) OVA Luminaires are already fully compliant with the I.E.C. Regulations.

Directional Indicating Signs

In a most recent development, pertaining to Directional Indicating Signs, and in accordance with UNI EN 1838, and ISO 3864-6309, which governs the Visibility Distances of such Signs, the following formula can be applied:

D = S x P Where:

D = Observation Distance

S = 100 for Externally Illuminated Signs

S = 200 for Internally Illuminated Signs

P = Pictogram Height in M

Using the following values on an Internally Illuminated Exit Sign, let us calculate an Example: -

D = 200 x 0.115

D = 23 Metres.

By making use of the above formula, this guarantees optimum photometric characteristics, and also guarantees the highest level of legibility. This formula also allows for the installation to have a lower number of installed Luminaires, thereby resulting in a reduction of installation and maintenance costs. Experience has proven that the colours, white print, on a green background, as used in these Directional Indicating Signs is shown to have the best contrast and visibility features.

According to these Regulations, it is not possible to extend Normal Emergency Lighting Functions, to that of a Directional Indicating Sign. It is therefore not enough to simply place an Adhesive Legend onto an Emergency Luminaire.

Directional Signs are not there to provide Emergency Lighting during Power Failures, but are there to indicate Exit Routes by attracting attention.

Electrical Sub-Station Emergency Lighting And Timer Units (ESU)

There are Inverters and Emergency Luminaires available, which can be used inside a Sub-Station in conjunction with the Sub-Station Timer Unit. This Timer Unit is fitted with a pushbutton. In the event of a Power Failure, the Emergency Lighting will energize and remain on for a period of approximately 5 minutes. If, within this 5-minute period, the pushbutton on the Timer Unit is not pressed, the Emergency Lighting will automatically be switched off. This then, prevents the Cells in the Luminaire from becoming exhausted before the person has arrived on site. Upon his arrival, this person, who is usually based some distance from the Sub-Station, can turn the Emergency Lighting back on, by simply pushing the button on the Timer Unit.

Central Generator Systems

Central Generator Systems should not be considered as Emergency Lighting, but only as Standby Lighting (refer definitions). The reasoning behind this is that it can take from 5-15 minutes for this Standby Lighting to switch on. This changeover Time by way of the regulations will not suffice. Also if there is a fire in the building the Fire Department will, upon arrival at the scene, firstly switch off all sources of electricity. (This is done to prevent the firemen from being electrocuted!) This will include the central generators, resulting in a total loss of Lighting.

For these reasons stand-alone Luminaires should be used for Emergency Lighting, in addition to Standby Lighting. The loss of a few of these Luminaires in a fire is by no means serious and personnel still trapped in the building will still be able to evacuate with reasonable Safety.

Central Battery System

The application of these Systems should be as per "Central Generator Systems", for the same reasons.

Inverters and Self-Diagnostic Systems Operating Conditions and Procedures

Do not operate ÉCLAT INVERTERS under adverse conditions. In this we refer to items such as:

Water entering the Enclosure, Pack or Luminaire.

Where there are naked flames present. Except of course in the unlikely event of fire and when Emergency Evacuation is necessary.

Where there is excessive vibration. We have a solution, so please contact us for the "R" Version of any Inverter.

Where there are constant excessively low ambient temperatures.

Where there are constant excessively high ambient temperatures.

Where there are explosive gasses and without the correct enclosure for these atmospheres.

Incorrect Supply Voltage, excessive Voltage or excessive Voltage fluctuations.

Incorrect Battery Pack, or, faulty Battery Pack.

Units Without The Self-Diagnostic System

Firstly after installation ensure that the Battery isolating switch is in the "OFF" position (or Battery connector where applicable, is disconnected).

Secondly switch on the Mains Supply to the Luminaire. It should not operate if the Luminaire and the unit are fed off two separate power supplies. The Luminaire will however operate, if both the ÉCLAT INVERTER and the Luminaire are connected to the same Power Supply - this is used as described elsewhere, under conditions where the Luminaire will remain permanently on.

Thirdly switch on the power to the ÉCLAT INVERTER, if connected to a separate Supply. The Lamp in the Luminaire should now operate, (in the case of 2 separate power supplies) as per normal.

Now switch the Battery Isolating switch to the "ON" position (or where applicable, connect Battery terminals.)

First Functional Test Without The Self-Diagnostic System (SDS)

Allow the ÉCLAT INVERTER to charge the Battery for at least 3 Hours before Testing whether the unit functions correctly.

To carry out a Functional Test, a Power Failure would have to be simulated. It is almost impossible to switch off the Switched and Unswitched Line manually at the same instant in Time. It is preferable to switch the 230/380Volt A.C. Mains isolator or breaker, which feeds both the switched and Unswitched Line Circuit breakers. If this is not done correctly, the unit will not operate satisfactorily. So to avoid disappointment, carry out this procedure correctly! NOTE: You will not obtain the full Emergency Duration on a short Duration Battery charging period. The minimum charge Time is between 16 and 24 Hours.

To restore normal functioning, switch the 230/380Volt A.C. Mains isolator back on.

The Self-Diagnostic System (SDS)

A SELF-DIAGNOSTIC SYSTEM feature can be added at any Time if required; space permitting. This entails A few additional wires between the ÉCLAT INVERTER and the SDS Unit.

With this feature added, the Luminaire will automatically, at pre-determined intervals (usually monthly), carry out a FUNCTIONAL TEST. This will allow for the Testing of the Lamp, the Inverter and the Battery for a period of 2 minutes. The Test will abort as soon as any fault is detected.

Also, automatically at pre-determined intervals (usually 3 monthly), the SDS Unit will carry out a FULL RATED DURATION TEST. This will allow a full discharge of the Battery, to a pre-determined Voltage. Once this Test is complete the Battery will automatically be Refreshed or Recharged. Obviously with this FULL RATED DURATION TEST the Inverter and Lamp would also undergo Diagnosis. The Test will abort as soon as any fault is detected.

The results will be displayed via a multi-colour LED mounted within the Luminaire, or on the front panel of the Pack. The type of fault, if any, would be indicated as follows:

GREEN - NORMAL FUNCTIONING.

RED - LOW BATTERY VOLTAGE OR FAULTY BATTERY.

FLASHING GREEN - FAULTY LAMP.

YELLOW - FAULTY INVERTER.

FLASHING RED - FAULTY LAMP AND BATTERY.

At any Time, including normal operating conditions, that a faulty Lamp is detected, the LED will immediately begin flashing green if no Light is detected within a 60 second period.

Units Equipped With The Self-Diagnostic System (SDS)

Firstly, after installation ensure that the Battery isolating switch is in the "OFF" position (or Battery connector where applicable, is disconnected).

Secondly switch on the Mains Supply to the Luminaire. It should not operate if the Luminaire and the unit are fed off two separate power supplies. The Luminaire will also not operate for the first 60 seconds, even if both the ÉCLAT INVERTER and the Luminaire are connected to the same Power Supply - this is used as described elsewhere, under conditions where the Luminaire will remain permanently on. The reason for this is that the Self-Diagnostic System carries out its first Functional Check immediately on power up, and any subsequent power ups.

Thirdly switch on the power to the ÉCLAT INVERTER, if connected to a separate Supply. The Lamp in the Luminaire should now still not operate for the first 60 seconds, (in the case of 2 separate power supplies) as per normal. The reason for this is that the Self-Diagnostic System carries out its first Functional Check immediately on power up, and any subsequent power ups.

Now switch the Battery Isolating switch to the "ON" position (or where applicable, connect Battery terminals) as soon as possible after powering the Unswitched Line to the ÉCLAT INVERTER.

There are 2 possible readings that will be obtained from the first Test, namely:

RED - LOW BATTERY VOLTAGE OR FAULTY BATTERY.

FLASHING GREEN - FAULTY LAMP.

The reasons for this is that the Battery Voltage will be low due to shipment / storage. The Lamp would have to warm up sufficiently and give out enough Light to prevent a faulty Lamp reading. This should all correct itself at the first Functional Test as described below.

First Functional Test With Self-Diagnostic System (SDS)

Allow the ÉCLAT INVERTER to charge the Battery for at least 3 Hours before Testing whether the unit functions correctly.

To carry out a Functional Test a Power Failure would have to be simulated. It is almost impossible to switch off the switched and Unswitched Line manually at the same instant in Time. It is preferable to switch the 230/380Volt A.C. Mains isolator or breaker, which feeds both the switched and Unswitched Line Circuit breakers. If this is not done correctly, the unit will not operate satisfactorily. So to avoid disappointment, carry out this procedure correctly! NOTE: You will not obtain the full Emergency Duration on a short Duration Battery charging period. The minimum charge Time is between 16 and 24 Hours.

To restore normal functioning, switch the 230/380Volt A.C. Mains isolator back on.

Battery Operating Conditions And Procedures

Safety First

Never dispose of ANY Battery in fire, it will explode resulting in severe personal injury. Rather return the Battery to the Supplier for safe disposal.

Do not drill any additional holes into the Inverter or Emergency Pack Enclosure. Injury to persons and damage to equipment may occur as a result.

Do not attempt to disassemble or service the Batteries. The acid contained in the Battery could cause damage to clothing and skin. Should this happen, wash immediately with clean water. Should the acid come into contact with the eye's flush immediately for at least 5 minutes with clean water and immediately thereafter seek medical attention.

Always wear eye protection when cleaning or handling Batteries.

Always wear protective clothing when cleaning or handling Batteries.

Do not smoke, keep naked flames and sparks away from the Battery enclosure. Batteries give off gasses in the form of hydrogen, which is HIGHLY EXPLOSIVE.

Use only suitably insulated tools, when carrying out any maintenance, or making connections to the Battery Packs and their respective terminals. For example, a screwdriver accidentally dropped across the Battery terminals, will cause a massive short Circuit, thereby resulting in Battery failure or an explosion.

Remove any items of jewellery such as necklaces, bangles, rings, chains and watches, to prevent accidental contact and short Circuiting of the Battery terminals

Do not short Circuit the Battery terminals, this can result in damage to the Battery, the equipment it is connected to, as well as personal injury.

Never clean the Battery casing with strong chemicals or solvents such as petrol, thinners or oil. This could damage the casing, causing injury and damage to clothing. Use only a clean cloth dampened with water.

Never carry out any maintenance on the ÉCLAT INVERTER whilst the unit or the associated Luminaire is live, or capable of becoming live.

Always ensure adequate isolation from the Mains Supply whilst servicing or maintaining the units. Remember to isolate the Unswitched as well as the Switched Lines, and also the Battery Supply, be they remote, self-contained or from an in-house Battery bank. In the case of a solar charging System, isolate this too before carrying out any maintenance or repairs.

Always switch the Battery to the "OFF" position first, (or where applicable, disconnect Battery terminals) and then isolate the unit and the Luminaire from the Mains Voltage, before carrying out any maintenance procedures on the Batteries in the unit.

As the Battery Voltage in some cases is in excess of 96 Volts D.C. the utmost care must be taken in preventing accidental contact with the Battery Terminals or interconnecting leads. REMEMBER YOU ARE DEALING WITH A POTENTIALLY LETHAL VOLTAGE AND BATTERIES WHICH ARE CAPABLE OF HIGH DISCHARGE CURRENTS.

If a particular Cell in the Battery bank, at any Time has to be replaced, always ensure that any interconnecting leads between the adjacent Cells which are now loose, do not come into contact with any surrounding components or metalwork. The flash from the arc could result in temporary blindness, which could lead to more severe injuries should you happen to fall as a result of the blindness.

Do not work alone on the unit, always have an assistant present who can help you, or, in the event of injury call for help or give medical attention.

Ensure that the unit is adequately earthed on the Mains wiring, as well as on any metalwork of enclosure, before carrying out any maintenance procedures.

NEVER tamper with the Inverter Output terminals, the terminals, the terminals from the electronic control gear, or the terminals of the special Ignitor unit (where applicable,) whilst the unit is on. Under certain conditions, there are extra high Voltages present here - UP TO 70 000 VOLTS, AND AT APPROXIMATELY 25 AMPERES ON SOME UNITS.

Routine Maintenance

Always carry out repairs in a safe and correct manner. Observe section titled "SAFETY".

Never dispose of any Battery in fire, it will explode and cause severe personal injury.

Always switch the Battery to the "OFF" position first, and then isolate the unit and the Luminaire from the Mains Voltage, before carrying out any maintenance procedures on the Batteries or Inverters in the unit.

Check the individual Battery Pack Voltages, using a suitable Multimeter. The Cell Voltages for a fully charged Cell or Pack must lie between 1.2 Volt and 1.4 Volt D.C. per Cell, with the Battery isolating switch in the "OFF" position (or where applicable, disconnected Battery terminals.) If any Pack deviates from this value by a few Volts, it should without delay, be replaced with a Battery of the same type and capacity. Consult your ÉCLAT INVERTER Supplier for a suitable replacement.

To check the charge Voltage the Mains power must be on with the Battery isolating switch in the "OFF" position (or where applicable, disconnected Battery terminals.) Do not allow the Inverter Battery Leads to come into contact with each other, or to come into contact with any metal work. Measure across the Inverter Battery leads with a suitable Multimeter. This should measure 10.5 to 12.5 Volt D.C. on the ÉCLAT 105 INVERTERS. This Voltage should measure up to 14.0 Volt D.C. on the ÉCLAT 112 INVERTERS, and up to 24.0 Volt D.C. on the ÉCLAT 116 INVERTERS. If not, the Inverter should be replaced.

Any Cells in the Battery Pack which are leaking, cracked, swollen or damaged, should be replaced. This would require for the entire Pack to be replaced, with a Battery of the same type and capacity. Consult your ÉCLAT INVERTER Supplier for a suitable replacement. All traces of acid and corrosion must be cleaned away with suitable equipment and materials. Eye protection must be worn to prevent acid and dust from entering the eyes.

Dust can be removed from the enclosure using a vacuum cleaner, or a blower. If this is impossible, use a paintbrush and cloth. Remove dust before applying any petroleum jelly or grease to the Battery Terminals. Eye protection must be worn to prevent acid and dust from entering the eyes.

Any signs of corrosion around the Battery terminals can be brushed off with an old toothbrush or similar plastic instrument. The terminal can then be smeared with a layer of petroleum jelly or thin grease, after carefully removing the terminal of the interconnecting wire. The Battery will conduct through the grease. Do not place excessive grease on the terminals, as this will attract dust, especially if the enclosure does not completely seal. Reconnect the interconnecting wire on completion.

The Battery casing and enclosure should only be cleaned using a clean cloth dampened with clean water. Dispose of this cloth after use as it may have collected corrosive chemicals during the cleaning procedure. DO NOT clean the Battery casing with strong chemicals or solvents such as petrol, thinners, oil, etc. as this could damage or destroy the Battery casing, resulting in acid leaks and eventual failure of the unit.

Earthing points inside the unit need to be checked for tightness and signs of corrosion. If necessary, discard the old connectors and replace with a suitable equivalent. A thin layer of petroleum jelly or grease can be applied to prevent corrosion in the future.

Electrical connections inside the unit need to be checked for tightness and signs of corrosion. If necessary, discard the old connectors and replace with a suitable equivalent. A thin layer of petroleum jelly or grease can be applied to prevent corrosion in the future.

Do not attempt to service the Inverters. If they are faulty, return them to your ÉCLAT INVERTER Supplier and obtain a suitable replacement.

Do not attempt to service the special Ignitors (Where applicable.) If they are faulty, return them to your ÉCLAT INVERTER Supplier and obtain a suitable replacement.

The LDR (Light Dependent Resistor), in the case of units equipped with the SDS (Self-Diagnostic System) needs to be checked for cleanliness. A simple wipe with a clean dry cloth over the surface of the LDR is all that is required. This will prevent false readings when the Self-Diagnostic Test is carried out. Also check that the LDR wires have not become hardened and brittle. If they have they should be replaced with suitable wires. Remember that the LDR needs to see the Lamp, but must not be within 10mm of the Lamp.

Warranty

Warranty covers defective workmanship and faulty components for a period of 1 (one) year from date of purchase. The warranty will not be honoured if the defective components are found to have been subject to mis-use, abuse or wilful neglect. The warranty will not cover units equipped with lead acid Batteries which have been left in storage without recharging or replenishing the Battery at least every 6 (six) months whilst in storage. Faulty components returned under warranty, will first be evaluated to determine the cause of failure before a replacement part, component or unit is issued.

Failures

Failures can be attributed to a number of reasons and underlying causes, namely:

Lightning Strikes.

Excessive Over Voltage or high Voltage spikes.

Incorrect Power Supply.

Incorrect connection of the unit whilst carrying out the conversion.

Incorrect connection of replacement Batteries (polarity reversal).

Replacement of Batteries with the incorrect type of rating and Voltage.

Replacement of Inverters with the incorrect type.

Incorrect procedure in isolating the unit and Luminaire.

Incorrect procedure in re-energising the unit and Luminaire.

Failure to maintain the unit correctly.

Physical damage to the ÉCLAT INVERTER unit.

Mechanical impact to the unit.

Drilling of additional holes into the enclosure.

Incorrect enclosure for the type of environment.

Excessive and prolonged high ambient temperatures.

Excessive and prolonged cold ambient temperatures.

Faulty equipment or control gear.

Repairs And Fault Finding

Always carry out repairs in a safe and correct manner. Observe section titled "SAFETY".

 

 

IF THE LUMINAIRE IS STILL OPERATIONAL, BUT THE ÉCLAT INVERTER FAILS TO OPERATE :

Check with a suitable Multimeter, the Battery Voltage with the Battery isolating switch in the "OFF" position (or where applicable, disconnected Battery connection terminals.). If this is below the required Voltage the following points could help to locate the fault:

POSSIBLE CAUSES OF FAILURE

REMEDY OR ACTION TO TAKE

Has there been a Power Failure within the last 24 Hours

If so, the Battery bank may not be fully replenished or recharged.

Is the internal charger operational

Check across the Inverter Battery connection terminals with a suitable Multimeter on highest D.C. Volt scale, with the Battery isolating switch in the "OFF" position (or where applicable, disconnected Battery connection terminals) and the Mains Voltage on!

Is there a faulty Cell in the Battery bank

Carefully, without using excessive force, disconnect the Cells from each other (where applicable or possible,) by removing the interconnecting leads. Check the individual Cell or Pack Voltages.

 

Are the interconnecting leads in order

Test for continuity with a Multimeter, set on the lowest Ohms Scale across each lead. (Mains Power Off!)

Is the Battery isolating switch in order

Test for continuity with a Multimeter, set on the lowest Ohms Scale across the connecting terminals, with the Battery bank disconnected. (Mains Power Off!)

Are the Battery terminals and connectors in order and free of corrosion

Contact between the Battery terminal, and the interconnecting lead may be lost, or poor, due to excessive corrosion.

If all of the above points are in order

The Inverter is faulty. Do not attempt to service the Inverter. Replace the Inverter with the correct equivalent.

 

 

IF THE LUMINAIRE IS NON - OPERATIONAL, AND THE ÉCLAT INVERTER FAILS TO OPERATE:

Check with a suitable Multimeter, the Mains Voltage with the Battery isolating switch in the "OFF" position (or where applicable, disconnected Battery connection terminals.). If this is below the required Voltage the following points could help to locate the fault:

 

POSSIBLE CAUSES OF FAILURE

REMEDY OR ACTION TO TAKE

Is the Mains A.C. Voltage present at the Mains terminals of the Inverter

Check with a suitable Multimeter set on the highest A.C. Volt scale.

Is the changeover relay fully plugged into the relay base (where applicable)

Vibration can cause the relay to work its way out of the base.

Is the changeover relay coil in working order (where applicable)

Test for continuity across the coil terminals with a Multimeter, set on the lowest Ohms Scale and increase scale upwards until a reading is obtained.

Are the changeover relay contacts in working order (where applicable)

Test for continuity across the contact terminals with a Multimeter set on the lowest Ohms Scale.

Are the changeover relay base connections tight and in good order (where applicable)

Carefully check each connection using suitable tools.

Are the other electrical connections and associated wires in order

Carefully check each connection using suitable tools. Test for continuity across the wire ends with a Multimeter set on the lowest Ohms Scale.

Is the Lamp in order

Obvious, but sometimes overlooked.

Is the Lampholder in order

If the contacts are badly burnt, or if the Lampholder is damaged, replace with a suitable equivalent.

Is the Battery Pack in order

 

Check the Battery Pack as described under ' Luminaire operational, and ÉCLAT INVERTERS non-operational' above.

 

 

IF THE LUMINAIRE IS NON - OPERATIONAL, AND THE ÉCLAT INVERTER DOES OPERATE:

Check with a suitable Multimeter, the Mains Voltage with the Battery isolating switch in the "OFF" position (or where applicable, disconnected Battery connection terminals.). If this is below the required Voltage the following points could help to locate the fault:

 

POSSIBLE CAUSES OF FAILURE

REMEDY OR ACTION TO TAKE

Is the Mains Voltage present at the Luminaire Mains connection

Check with a suitable Multimeter set on the highest A.C. Volts scale between live and neutral terminals.

Is the Mains Voltage present at the ballast Mains input terminal

Check with a suitable Multimeter set on the highest A.C. Volts scale between the ballast Mains input terminal and neutral terminal.

Is the Luminaire ballast in order

Check with a suitable Multimeter set on the highest A.C. Volts scale between the ballast Output terminal to Lamp and the neutral terminal

If the ballast is burnt out

Check ambient conditions. Check for water ingress.

If conditions are in order, but ballast is burnt out.

Replace power factor correction capacitor with a suitable equivalent. Replace the faulty ballast too.

Is the changeover relay in order (where applicable)

Check as described under 'Luminaire non-operational, and ÉCLAT INVERTERS non-operational' above.

Is the ignitor in working order (where applicable)

Use a suitable replacement unit for Test purposes. DO NOT use a standard Multimeter to measure the H.V. Output of the Ignitor, this will destroy your meter and is an extremely dangerous process.

 

 

IF THE LUMINAIRE IS OPERATIONAL, AND THE ÉCLAT INVERTER DOES OPERATE, BUT NOT WITHIN SPECIFICATION:

Check with a suitable Multimeter, the Mains Voltage with the Battery isolating switch in the "OFF" position (or where applicable, disconnected Battery connection terminals.). If this is below the required Voltage the following points could help to locate the fault:

 

POSSIBLE CAUSES OF FAILURE

REMEDY OR ACTION TO TAKE

Is the Light Output low whilst running under Emergency conditions

Check that the Lamp is not past it's useful lifetime. Replace with a suitable equivalent Lamp, whilst the Luminaire is operating under NORMAL CONDITIONS.

Check the Battery bank as described under ' Luminaire operational, and ÉCLAT INVERTERS non-operational' above.

Is the Duration shorter than specified whilst running under Emergency conditions.

Check the Battery bank as described under ' Luminaire operational, and ÉCLAT INVERTERS non-operational' above.

Is the charging current or the charging Voltage too high, or too low.

Check the Battery bank as described under ' Luminaire operational, ÉCLAT INVERTERS non operational' above. Replace the Inverter with a suitable equivalent and compare the relative values. Ensure correct Mains Voltage is present, and that the neutral connections are secure. The loss of a neutral can result in 380 Volt A.C. being present at the Inverter input.

 

 

OVERVIEW OF ÉCLAT INVERTERS AND THEIR FEATURES

A BRIEF LOOK AT THE INVERTER DESCRIPTIONS

104B = 1 Hour, 4 Cell. (2Ah) NiCad Cell.

105D = 1 Hour, 5 Cell. (2Ah) NiCad Cell.

205D =   2 Hour, 5 Cell. (4Ah) NiCad Cell.

105D2X = 1 Hour, 12 Cell. (2Ah) NiCad Cell. Twin Lamp, Maintained Inverter.

205D2X = 2 Hour, 12 Cell. (4Ah) NiCad Cell. Twin Lamp, Maintained Inverter..

105Di = 1 Hour, 12 Cell. (2Ah) NiCad Cell. Incandescent Lamp Inverter.

205Di = 2 Hour, 12 Cell. (4Ah) NiCad Cell. Incandescent Lamp Inverter.

105DL = 1 Hour, 5 Cell. (2Ah) NiCad Cell. Inverter Equipped With Light Sensor. Inverter Operates Only When Dark Or Necessary.

205DL = 2 Hour, 5 Cell. (4Ah) NiCad Cell. Inverter Equipped With Light Sensor. Inverter Operates Only When Dark Or Necessary.

106D = 1 Hour, 6 Cell (4Ah) NiCad Cell.

108D = 1 Hour, 8 Cell. (4Ah) NiCad Cell.

112D = 1 Hour, 12 Cell. (4Ah) NiCad Cell.

116D = 1 Hour, 16 Cell. (4Ah) NiCad Cell.

105P = 1 Hour, 1 Cell, 6V (2Ah) Lead Acid Cell.

105P2X = 1 Hour, 1 Cell, 12V (2Ah) Lead Acid Cell. (Or 2 x 6V in Series.) Twin Lamp, Maintained Inverter.

205P2X = 2 Hour, 1 Cell, 12V (4Ah) Lead Acid Cell. (Or 2 x 6V in Series.) Twin Lamp, Maintained Inverter.

105Pi = 1 Hour, 1 Cell, 12V (2Ah) Lead Acid Cell. (Or 2 x 6V in Series.) Incandescent Lamp Inverter.  

205Pi = 2 Hour, 1 Cell, 12V (4Ah) Lead Acid Cell. (Or 2 x 6V in Series.) Incandescent Lamp Inverter.  

105PL = 1 Hour, 1 Cell, 12V (2Ah) Lead Acid Cell. (Or 2 x 6V in Series.)

Inverter Equipped With Light Sensor. Inverter Operates Only When Dark Or Necessary.  

205PL = 2 Hour, 1 Cell, 12V (4Ah) Lead Acid Cell. (Or 2 x 6V in Series.)

Inverter Equipped With Light Sensor. Inverter Operates Only When Dark Or Necessary.  

106P = 1 Hour, 1 Cell, 6V (4Ah) Lead Acid Cell.

112P = 1 Hour, 1 Cell, 12V (4Ah) Lead Acid Cell. (Or 2 x 6V in Series.)  

116P = 1 Hour, 3 Cell, 18V (4Ah) Lead Acid Cell. (3 x 6V in Series.)

NOTE: 

Inverter Series 106 To 116 Are Also Available In 2X And L Versions.

A = Automotive, runs directly off External Power Source. No Charger, No Changeover Circuit.

F = External power Source. No Charger, With Changeover Circuit.

 

BATTERY REQUIREMENTS

104B = 4 Cell, up to a B (Sub C) Sized (2Ah) NiCad Cell.

105D = 5 Cell, up to a D Sized (4Ah) NiCad Cell.

The 105D Inverter and onwards can cope with up to F Sized 7Ah NiCad Cells, allowing up to 3,5 Hour Duration.

205D = 5 Cell, up to a D Sized (4Ah) NiCad Cell.

106D = 6 Cell, up to a D Sized (4Ah) NiCad Cell.

108D = 8 Cell, up to a D Sized (4Ah) NiCad Cell.

112D = 12 Cell, up to a D Sized (4Ah) NiCad Cell.

116D = 16 Cell, up to a D Sized (4Ah) NiCad Cell.

105P = 1 Cell, 6V (4Ah) Lead Acid Cell.

The 105P Inverter and onwards can cope with up to 2 x 6V 4Ah Lead Acid Cells in parallel, allowing up to 4,0 Hour Duration.

106P = 1 Cell, 6V (4Ah) Lead Acid Cell.

112P = 1 Cell, 12V (4Ah) Lead Acid Cell. (or 2 x 6V in Series.)  

116P = 3 Cell, 18V (4Ah) Lead Acid Cell. (3 x 6V in Series.) 

LAMP SUITABILITY

N.B. FLUORESCENT LAMPS CAN BE OF THE LINEAR OR COMPACT TYPES. HOWEVER THIS EXCLUDES THOSE LAMPS WHICH HAVE BUILT IN ELECTRONIC CONTROL GEAR, SUCH AS THE ENERGY SAVER TYPES.

104 = 4-26 Watt Lamps.

105 = 8-58 Watt Lamps.

106 = 18-36 Watt Lamps.

108 = 36-58 Watt Lamps.

112 = 36-58 Watt Lamps.

116 = 58-75 Watt Lamps.

LIGHT OUTPUT

You Will Notice the Actual Light Output Stated in the Inverter Data Specification Sheets are A Lot Higher than that Stated on the Inverter. This is because the Inverter and it’s associated Battery, according to International and SABS Regulation, should still offer the Specified Light Output at the END of the Duration Run, i.e. when the Battery is depleted of it’s Power Handling Capacity.

ALL Inverters can have up to 3 extra NiCad Cells added to increase Light Output. For example, on the 105D, when using 5 x 2Ah NiCad Cells, on a 58 W Lamp, the Light Output will drop to 16% as the cells Deteriorate with heat, time, age, and towards the end of the Emergency Duration. Adding 1 extra cell will boost the Light Output to 21%, which is already bordering on minimum requirement, at the end of the Duration Run. Optimally a 7 Cell Pack should be utilized, which will offer 25% Light Output on a 58 Watt lamp.

104 = 100% - 20% Light Output. (Lamp in use Determines Light Output.)

105 = 100% - 20% Light Output. 30% on 18 Watt, 25% on 36 Watt, 20% on 58 Watt.

106 = 100% on 18 Watt, 50% on 36 Watt, 31% on 58 Watt.

108 = 65% on 36 Watt, 41% on 58 Watt.

112 = 100% on 36 Watt, 50% on 58 Watt.

116 = 100% on 58 Watt, 50% on 75 Watt.

DURATION

Using 2Ah Cells on the 105 will cause the Inverter to run for 1 Hour only. Using 4Ah Cells on the 105 will cause the Inverter to run for 2 Hours. 

The 104 Inverter draws 1 Amps per Hour = 1 Ah. = 1 Hour run time.

The 105 Inverter draws 2 Amps per Hour = 2 Ah. = 1 Hour run time.

The 205 Inverter draws 2 Amps per Hour = 4 Ah. = 2 Hour run time. (Higher Capacity Charger in Inverter.)

The 106 Inverter draws 4 Amps per Hour = 4 Ah. = 1 Hour run time.

The 108 Inverter draws 4 Amps per Hour = 4 Ah. = 1 Hour run time.

The 112 Inverter draws 4 Amps per Hour = 4 Ah. = 1 Hour run time.

The 116 Inverter draws 4 Amps per Hour = 4 Ah. = 1 Hour run time.

 

To obtain 0.5 Hour Run time, simply Halve the Ah Capacity. e.g.: -

E.G. The 106 Inverter draws 4 Amps per Hour = 2 Ah. = 0.5 Hour run time.

However 1 extra cell may be required to Achieve correct Light Output. (7 x 2 Ah)

Conversely, To obtain 2 or 3 Hour Run time, simply Double or Triple the Ah Capacity.

ÉCLAT INVERTER STANDARD FEATURES

Constant Light Output over entire Emergency Duration, except for the last few minutes - approximately 5 minutes. (Light Output Test Reports are available.)

Charge Indicating LED.

Supplied Complete with Colour Coded Wires for faster installation.

Robust, Mill Finish Extruded Aluminium Housing.

Low Profile: 31mm x 40mm x 208mm. H x W x L. (105 D) 31mm x 40mm x 280mm. H x W x L. (106 – 116D.)

Surface Mount Technology (SMT) Electronic Components.

Glass Fibre Printed Circuit Board (PCB.)

Solder Mask is a Feature on all Inverters, which assists in preventing Short Circuits and resultant Inverter failure in damp, corrosive or wet environments.

Battery Low Voltage Cut-off Protection.

Battery Over Voltage Charge Protection.

In the Case of Lead Acid Batteries, the Charger Shuts off, until Battery requires topping up.

Mains Voltage Surge Protection.

Nominal Mains Input Voltage 230V A.C. 50 Hz ± 10%.

Failure Rate of less than 0.65%.

Design Life of 10 Years.

Inspection and Test Procedures are carried out TWICE on EACH and EVERY Inverter to ensure it’s Functionality. Full Test and Inspection procedure is available.

Light Output Tests (under a controlled environment) are carried out on a regular basis, to ensure that all Inverters conform to the set requirements.

One Type of Inverter is all that is required, to cater for all Types of Standard Control Gear, be this: -

Switched Start, Semi-Resonant, Rapid Start, Electronic, Dimmable Electronic (from any Manufacturer.) Please inquire for suitable Wiring Diagrams.

ÉCLAT INVERTER ADDITIONAL FEATURES

Inverters can be Resin Cast for Rugged Environments.

Can be Combined with a Suitable Battery within a Single Housing.

Data / Specification Sheets are available for each Inverter (except for the new products) should You require.

ADVANTAGES OF ÉCLAT INVERTERS

Not limited to a specific number of cells for a given Inverter.

Light output remains constant over the entire Duration Period, irrespective of the lamp wattage, and irrespective of the Standard Control Gear used. (Will not run into a standard 2-pin lamp, the use of which, is contrary to International Regulations.)

Not limited to a specific Ampere Hour rating of Ni-Cad Cells for a given Inverter.

Simple wiring of Inverters.

In it’s Standard form, the Inverter will accommodate any type of Ballast, be they - Electronic, Dimmable Electronic, Semi- Resonant, Rapid Start, or Switched Start.

Features Surface Mount Device Technology, high quality Glass Fibre Printed Circuit Board, including a Solder Mask to resist moisture and resultant short circuiting.

Extremely robust Extruded Anodized Aluminium Housing – no rust, and difficult to flatten.

Smallest profile for currently available Inverters, 31mm high x 40 mm wide. Two standard lengths of 208mm and 280mm.

Proven design – has now been produced for 10 years, with ongoing refinement and improvements to the initial design.

The Inverter can operate in the Maintained, Non-Maintained, or Sustained Mode.

High Frequency, High Voltage Output, allowing for greater efficiency and smaller physical size.

Capable of running more than one lamp in the Maintained and Non-Maintained Modes. (See 105 D2X.)

Lightweight 310 and 450 Grams respectively.

Economical. Current consumption under Normal Charging Conditions is a modest 100mA. (0.10 Amp.)

Low Voltage Shutoff, to protect against deep discharge of the Battery Pack.

Mains Voltage Tolerance is ± 10% at 230 V AC, 50/60 Hz.

Simply put, good quality, reliable, and economically priced.

Suitably suppressed against causing mains interference (EMI.)

The Lead Acid Inverter ranges are physically identical to the Ni-Cad Inverters, and are based on the same Inverter Design principals, and therefore are of the same quality and reliability.

WHY THE LEAD ACID OPTION ?

Cheaper by far – less than half the price of ridiculously priced and over-rated Ni-Cad cells.

Nobody (or very few people) ever maintain their Expensive Ni-Cad Cells as they should be maintained, with the consequence that after a short period of time they are rendered useless.

Our exhaustive testing of Lead Acid Battery Packs, have shown that the Lead Acid Battery outperforms the Ni-Cad equivalent Packs by a fair margin.

With their current technology Lead Acid Batteries, with little or no maintenance, will last at least 3 years, provided that they are used within their design parameters, and provided that they are charged and discharged correctly.

The physical size of the Lead Acid batteries have become smaller over the last few years, due to the technological developments, and in most instances, are the same size as their Ni-Cad equivalents.

NO memory effect.

There is no need to discharge Lead Acid Batteries, although, it is a good principal to discharge them once in a while.

The average number of cycles is approximately 1000, for a discharge depth of 35%, before replacement is required. (For a 6 Volt pack, a fully charged pack Voltage would be 7,2 Volts. Discharge and cut-off is set at 4,7 Volts, which is 35%.

LOCAL PRODUCTION

WE PRODUCE LOCALLY ON OUR ELECTRONIC LINE, OUR OWN INVERTERS FOR MAINTAINED AND NON-MAINTAINED EMERGENCY LIGHTING APPLICATIONS, WHICH INCLUDE

HID Lamps up to 400 Watt.

Fluorescent Lamps up to 125 Watt.

Halogen Lamps up to 50 Watt.

Incandescent Lamps up to 100 Watt.

These may be a little more expensive than the common goods currently available on the Market, however, they are trouble free and well worth their money. The key factors being uncompromised quality and total reliability. To date, we have Produced on one type of Inverter (105 D,) some ±57,000 units. The failure rate for these, is currently in the order of 0,65%. In Total, We have approximately 17 Various Basic Inverters in our Range.

WE ALSO PRODUCE

Electronic Transformers for Low Voltage Halogen Lamps.

Autolite Units.

HID Hot Restrike Ignitors.

Self Diagnostic Systems (to be used in conjunction with ANY Inverter from ANY Manufacturer.)

 

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Last modified: July, 2010.
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